Fundamental concepts
- Sample versus population.
- Random sampling.
- Descriptive versus inferential.
Descriptive statistics
- Data collection (nominal scale, ordinal scale, interval scale, ratio scale).
- Frequency distribution, histogram, frequency polygon.
- Location: measures of central tendency (arithmetic mean, median, mode), quartiles, deciles and percentiles.
- Measures of variability and spread (minimum and maximum and range, variance, standard deviation).
- Distribution curves (normal distribution, bimodal distribution), Kurtosis, outlier, skewness.
Inferential statistics
- Standard error of mean, confidence intervals.
- Significance tests, hypothesis testing, error of hypothesis testing, statistical power and sample size, p value, one-tail versus two-tail test).
- Inference on means (student's t-test, comparison of means in paired and unpaired samples).
- Inference on proportions (chi-square test, Fisher's exact test)
Regression and correlation
Nonparametric methods or distribution-free methods
- Sighed rank test (Wilcoxon).
- Wilcoxon rank sum test.
- Mann-Whitney U test.
- Kruskal-Wallis test.
Life-table analysis
- Kaplan-Meier curve.
- Log rank test or Mantel-Haenszel test.
Meta-analysis (goals, pitfalls).
Evaluation of a new diagnostic test
- Reliability.
- Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, overall accuracy.
- Receiver operating characteristic curve.
References
MacNeill IB, Umphrey GJ. Biostatistics. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1987.
Lewis AE. Biostatistics. New York : Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1984.
R.H. Riffenburgh. Statistics in medicine. San Diego : Academic Press, 1999.
Khachatryan A and Linardakis N. Biostatistics and epidemiology. New York : McGraw-Hill, 1998.
Indrayan A, Sarmukaddam SB. Medical biostatistics. New York : Marcel Dekker, 2001.
Posted June 2010