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 Plasma Lipoproteins and Vascular Disease

Physiology

  • Structure of lipoproteins.
  • Categories of lipoproteins.
  • Lipoprotein metabolism.

Pathophysiology

  • Abnormal chylomicron metabolism.
  • Abnormal VLDL metabolism.
  • Abnormal LDL metabolism.
  • Abnormal HDL metabolism.

Therapeutic Interventions

  • Diet.
  • Drug therapy.
  • Surgical therapy.

The Relationship of Lipoproteins to Atherogenesis and Clinical Vascular Disease

  • The role of LDL in atherogenesis.
  • The role of VLDL and chylomicron remnants in atherogenesis.
  • The role of HDL in atherogenesis.
  • The relationship of lipoproteins to clinical vascular disease.

References

Ginsberg HN. Lipoprotein physiology. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 1998;27:503-519.

This review article describes in detail the composition and transportation of lipoproteins and apolipoproteins, including a discussion of cellular receptors and the enzymes relevant to lipoprotein metabolism.

Batiste MC, Schaefer EJ. Diagnosis and management of lipoprotein abnormalities. Nutr Clin Care 2002;5:115-123.

This article provides the reader with an update on the current status of the diagnosis and management of lipid disorders. The guidelines of the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III are presented including the current recommendations for treatment by diet and drugs.

Kruth HS. Lipoprotein cholesterol and atherosclerosis. Curr Mol Med 2001;1:633-653.

This article reviews the pathways of cholesterol entry and removal, the metabolism, and the physical changes of cholesterol in the vessel wall. How these processes are believed to contribute to cholesterol buildup in atherosclerotic plaques is discussed.

de Winther MP, Hofker MH. New mouse models for lipoprotein metabolism and atherosclerosis. Curr Opin Lipidol 2002;13:191-197.

Mouse models have greatly advanced our understanding of the pathology associated with altered lipoprotein levels, including cellular uptake, intracellular metabolism, cellular efflux mechanisms and transcriptional regulation. This review article describes progress in all of these areas and shows that animal models are likely to remain important to our view of gene function in the context of the whole organism.

Breslow JL. Genetics of lipoprotein abnormalities associated with coronary artery disease susceptibility. Annu Rev Genet 2000;34:233-254.

This review discusses the genetic basis of the principal lipoprotein abnormalities associated with coronary heart disease susceptibility in the general population. Individual sections discuss genes regulating LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and triglyceride levels. A section is included on the effects of the common apo E genetic variation on lipoprotein levels, as well as sections on the genetic regulation of lipoprotein(a) levels, genes regulating the inverse relationship between triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and HDL cholesterol levels, and our current understanding of the genetic basis of familial combined hyperlipidemia.

Posted June 2010