1. General considerations
- Function of growth factors.
- Growth factor receptors and mechanism of action.
2. Specific growth factors
- Platelet-derived growth factor (characteristics, receptor, effects, role in proliferative diseases of the vascular system).
- Fibroblast growth factor (characteristics, receptor, effects, role in proliferative diseases of the vascular system).
- Epidermal growth factor (characteristics, receptor, effects, role in proliferative diseases of the vascular system).
- Transforming growth factors α and β (characteristics, receptor, effects, role in proliferative diseases of the vascular system).
- Insulin-like growth factors (characteristics, receptor, binding protein, effects, role in proliferative diseases of the vascular system).
1. Sidawy AN, Mitchell ME, Neville RF. Peptide growth factors and signal transduction. Semin Vasc Surg 1998;11:149-155.
This paper reviews the role of various growth factors, such as platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), fibroblast growth factor (FGF), insulin, insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), and transforming growth factors alpha and beta (TGF alpha and beta), in the development of arteriosclerosis and intimal hyperplasia.
2. Hughes AD, Clunn GF, Refson J, Demoliou-Mason C. Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF): actions and mechanisms in vascular smooth muscle. Gen Pharmacol 1996;27:1079-1089.
This review describes the vascular biology of PDGF. It particularly focuses on recent findings regarding the intracellular signals activated by PDGF in the context of vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation, migration and contraction.
3. Chen CH, Henry PD. Atherosclerosis as a microvascular disease: impaired angiogenesis mediated by suppressed basic fibroblast growth factor expression. Proc Assoc Am Physicians 1997 ;109:351-361.
This paper presents evidence that hypercholesterolemia and oxidized low-density lipoprotein impair endothelial cell growth by suppressing basic fibroblast growth factor expression. Background studies on the subject are briefly reviewed.
4. Topper JN. TGF-beta in the cardiovascular system: molecular mechanisms of a context-specific growth factor. Trends Cardiovasc Med 2000;10:132-137.
Transforming growth factor beta isoforms have been strongly implicated in a number of pathophysiologic processes including chronic vascular diseases such as atherosclerosis and hypertension. This article reviews the molecular mechanisms by which these factors exert their complex and pleiotropic actions on cells and tissues of the cardiovascular system.
5. Bayes-Genis A, Conover CA , Schwartz RS. The insulin-like growth factor axis: A review of atherosclerosis and restenosis. Circ Res 2000;86:125-130.
Dysregulated actions of insulin-like growth factors I and II have been found to contribute to coronary atherosclerosis and restenosis. This article first reviews the basic physiology of the IGF axis and then discusses specific autocrine and paracrine actions of IGFs in atherosclerotic plaque progression and the neointimal hyperplasia of restenosis.
Posted June 2010