Back to Vascular Web

 Histopathologic Features of Nonarteriosclerotic Diseases of the Aorta and Arteries

Degenerative changes of the aorta and arteries

  • Age-related changes in the aorta.
  • Aortic dissection.
  • Heritable disorders of connective tissue (including Marfan's syndrome and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome).

Acquired structural defects

  • Cystic adventitial disease.

Developmental or acquired structural abnormalities of arteries

  • Fibromuscular dysplasia.
  • Inflammatory conditions of the aorta and arteries.
  • Vasculitis.
  • Syphilitic aortitis.

Inflammatory aortic aneurysms and retroperitoneal fibrosis

  • Rheumatoid panaortitis.
  • Seronegative spondyloarthritides.
  • Takayasu's aortitis.
  • Giant cell aortitis.
  • Infectious aortitis.
  • Collagen vascular diseases.
  • Scleroderma.
  • Giant cell arteritis.
  • Polyarteritis nodosa.
  • Allergic granulomatosis and angiitis.
  • Polyangiitis overlap syndrome.
  • Thromboangiitis obliterans.
  • Ergot-alkaloid associated arterial disease.


Pyeritz RE. The Marfan syndrome. Annu Rev Med 2000;51:481-510.

This chapter briefly reviews the historical evolution of this heritable disorder of connective tissue and related conditions, discusses the important developments of the past few years, and suggests where progress is most needed in the immediate future.

Luscher TF, Lie JT, Stanson AW, Houser OW, Hollier LH, Sheps SG. Arterial fibromuscular dysplasia. Mayo Clin Proc 1987;62:931-952.

This is a comprehensive review of fibromuscular dysplasia including its pathology, pathogenesis, natural history, clinical presentation, diagnosis and treatment.

Johnston SL, Lock RJ, Gompels MM. Takayasu arteritis: a review. J Clin Pathol 2002;55:481-486.

Takayasu arteritis is a well known yet rare form of large vessel vasculitis. This review details the history, clinical features, differential diagnoses, classification, and immunology of the disorder. Current evidence-based treatments are also presented and discussed.

Levine SM, Hellmann DB. Giant cell arteritis. Curr Opin Rheumatol 2002;14:3-10.

This review paper summarizes myriad basic science studies on the pathogenesis of giant cell arteritis. It also reviews the expanding knowledge of the epidemiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis and treatment of this systemic vasculitis.

Aqel MB , Olin JW. Thromboangiitis obliterans (Buerger's disease). Vasc Med 1997;2:61-66.

Thromboangiitis obliterans (Buerger's disease) is a nonatherosclerotic segmental inflammatory obliterative disease that most commonly affects the small- and medium-sized arteries and veins in both upper and lower extremities. The outline of Buerger's disease is described in this article.

Posted June 2010