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 Endothelial Cells

1. Development of the endothelium

2. Structure of the endothelium

  • Extracellular matrix.
  • Endothelial cell cytoskeleton.
  • Endothelial cell integrins.

3. The endothelium as a metabolic organ

4. Endothelial interactions

  • Endothelium and platelets.
  • Endothelium and lymphocytes.
  • Endothelium and leukocytes.

5. Culture of endothelial cells

  • Large vessel endothelial cells (including human umbilical vein endothelial cells and bovine aortic endothelial cells).
  • Microvascular endothelial cells.
  • Identification of endothelial cells.
  • Endothelial cell culture media.


1. Behrendt D, Ganz P. Endothelial function. From vascular biology to clinical applications. Am J Cardiol 2002;90:40L-48L.

This paper reviews the role of endothelium on atherogenesis and emphasizes the profound prognostic and therapeutic implications of endothelial dysfunction.

2. Blann AD, Lip GY. The endothelium in atherothrombotic disease: assessment of function, mechanisms and clinical implications. Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis 1998;9:297-306.

This article reviews the scientific and clinical evidence showing that changes in endothelial cell physiology are an important component of inflammatory and atherosclerotic vascular disease.

3. Schiffrin EL. The endothelium and control of blood vessel function in health and disease. Clin Invest Med 1994;17:602-620.

The endothelium is critically involved in the regulation of vascular function through its barrier role, via interaction with circulating cells such as platelets, which then release vasoactive or growth regulating agents, and through production of substances which may modulate vascular tone, smooth muscle cell growth and coagulation. This article reviews the role of the endothelium in health as well as in various diseases such as hypertension, atherosclerosis, diabetes, heart failure, ischemic heart disease, sepsis, and shock.

4. Luscher TF, Tanner FC. Endothelial regulation of vascular tone and growth. Am J Hypertens 1993;6:283S-293S.

The endothelium regulates vascular tone and growth by releasing factors involved in relaxation and contraction, in coagulation and thrombus formation, and in growth inhibition and stimulation. The role of various chemical and physical stimuli, mediators and endothelium-derived factors is summarized.

5. Katusic ZS, Shepherd JT. Endothelium-derived vasoactive factors: II. Endothelium-dependent contraction. Hypertension 1991;18:III86-92.

Endothelial cells may produce and release vasoconstrictor substances in response to a number of agents and physical stimuli. This brief review discusses the mechanisms of endothelium-dependent contractions and speculates about the possible importance of such contractions for venous graft function, development of vasospasm, increased vascular resistance in hypertension, and vascular complications in diabetes.

Posted June 2010